Phosphate Corrosion Control in Drinking Water


The metals in the pipe tend to rust when they come into contact with dissolved oxygen in the water. This fact results in the formation of stable metal oxides. Corrosion in water distribution systems can affect the health of consumers, the costs and the aesthetics of treated water. Older systems may include lead-based solders that must be protected to prevent high concentrations of lead. In fact, this is how it is regulated by Directive (EU) 2020/2184 of the European Parliament at 5 ug/l, since it is very harmful to health.

Corrosion inhibitors such as inorganic phosphates in the form of polyphosphates, orthophosphates, glassy phosphates and bimetallic phosphates are often used. The addition of phosphates can form a protective layer on the pipe and contain corrosion. To guarantee a correct dosage of phosphate that allows adequate corrosion control, monitoring with a reliable analyzer is required. This also achieves a reduction in operating costs.


Corrosion control with Phosphate.

Phosphate is commonly used to minimize corrosion in drinking water distribution systems. We refer here to residential, commercial and industrial drinking water pipes. Phosphate is also used to reduce lead corrosion and to meet government standards. To achieve passivation of new or previously untreated systems, phosphate is typically dosed at > 3.0 mg/L as orthophosphate. The typical maintenance dose to ensure corrosion control is 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L.


Monitoring treatment with phosphate.

It is necessary to monitor the phosphate concentration to ensure adequate corrosion control. Manual monitoring is possible. However, to avoid underfeeding or overfeeding during periods of fluctuating system flow, continuous monitoring is advantageous. Phosphate dosage control with an online analyzer allows:

  • Minimize corrosion to meet regulatory requirements
  • Reduce costs of added chemicals


The graph above shows underdosing of phosphate (blue line) while the flow rate increases with the manual feed system. The results are an increased risk of corrosion in the distribution network and a higher concentration of lead in drinking water. A continuous system with automatic feed allows maintenance of a desired set point regardless of flow rate fluctuation.

An automatic phosphate measurement provides all the necessary information. This makes it easy to keep proper control of the corrosion inhibitor to minimize corrosion and cost.


OUR SOLUTION: AMI Phosphate II Analyzer

Online analyzer, from the Swiss company SWAN ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS, for the automatic and continuous measurement of dissolved orthophosphates. Ideal for monitoring and controlling the phosphate dosing process. Measurement range: 0.01 to 10 ppm PO4

Its overflow chamber and continuous flow photometer eliminate coating and clogging problems. Optional cleaning module reduces maintenance efforts.

Built-in monitoring functions generate alarms if the measurement is invalid. Typical problems are lack of flow, empty reagent reservoirs, valve and photometer functionality.

No data loss after power failure. All data is saved in permanent memory. It has protection against overvoltages of inputs and outputs, and galvanic separation of measurement inputs and analog outputs. The analyzer is factory tested and ready to be installed and run.

Real-time gas analyzer to improve the operation of liquefied natural gas ships

There are different technologies available on the market to measure the quality of liquefied natural gas for evaporation gas applications. Traditionally, gas chromatographs have been used to measure the composition of the gas and its calorific value. These systems require calibration/carrier gases and require manual operation while underway.

Shipowners have expressed interest in alternative technologies. Technologies that reduce both the cost of analysis and manual handling on board ships. Obviously, by maintaining or improving the accuracy of gas quality measurements.

Tunable gas analyzer technology

The gas analyzer measures the composition of the gas using infrared absorption spectroscopy. Each gas component has a unique infrared “fingerprint”. A small stream of gas from the evaporation gas fuel tube is drawn by a sample probe. It is then introduced into the gas analyzer.

By illuminating the gas sample with infrared light at various wavelengths, the analyzer shows us its “fingerprint”. It determines the presence as well as the concentration of the individual gas components. The measurement principle is illustrated in Figure 1. A key component in the analyzer is a (patented) micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) filter. This filter is widely tunable and capable of scanning the wavelength of infrared light continuously over a wide bandwidth. Wide scanning allows all gas components of interest to be identified and quantified and minimizes cross-interference.

In addition, the fast response of the MEMS filter makes it possible to measure dynamic changes in the mix. Even when sampling relatively small volumes of gas.

Figure 1. Measurement principle of Tunable’s natural gas analyzer

Better data insights for a better understanding of fuel consumption

Some liquefied natural gas carriers have installed gas analyzers to measure the quality of the evaporation gas that is consumed as fuel during navigation. Usually, the shipowner and the charterer agree on fixed rates of evaporation and fuel consumption as part of their charter/transport contract.

However, actual gas consumption and value are affected by the actual gas mix supplied during the trip and may differ from those expected. By having access to online gas analysis of the actual fuel consumed during navigation, the shipowner and charterer obtain accurate data that could benefit and alter their commercial agreements.

Full-scale field test at FSRU Höegh Galleon

Höegh LNG and Tunable started a technological cooperation in 2018. The objective was to test, on board the FSRU (*) Höegh Galleon, a gas analyzer technology that requires less manual support, using the Tunable optical gas analyzer to measure the quality of the gas. evaporation gas. A standard gas chromatograph and Tunable gas analyzer were installed in parallel to verify and compare the performance of the two technologies.

For both technologies, the evaporation gas was extracted using an identical sampling probe. It was introduced into the system of their respective gas analyzers. Figure 2 shows an image of the Tunable gas analyzer installed on the galleon FSRU Höegh.

Figure 2. Gas analyzer installed in FSRU Höegh Galleon


(*) FSRU = Floating Storage Regasification Unit = Floating Storage and Regasification Unit

Experience from large-scale field trials

Both analyzers have been in operation since September 2019. Since then they have continuously measured the gas quality and the heating value of the evaporating gas. During this period, the Tunable analyzer has been in continuous operation providing calorific value C1 – C5 + N2 + as can be seen in figure 3.

Figure 3 C1-C5 + N2 data output from FSRU Höegh Galleon tunable analyzer June-September 2021

To analyze the data in more detail, we have shown in figure 4 a month of operation with data from both instruments. In this summary we see that both instruments provide a similar data reading. During the return trip before the next load, the liquefied natural gas tank is sprayed with methane to maintain the temperature of the tank. This operation is identified by the Tunable parser as you can see on the red line.

Figure 4 . FSRU Höegh Galleon methane reading from April to May 2020


The goal of the full-scale test, in addition to demonstrating consistent long-term readings, has been to gain operational experience of the system after use offshore. From its commissioning in September 2019 to today, the Tunable analyzer has been in continuous operation with no operational issues.

Analysis of results

During this period, the system has functioned without the need for manual support. Also, since the system does not need any calibration/carrying gas bottles to operate. Additional logistical problems for the ship’s crew have thus been avoided. Remote condition and service monitoring have been successfully tested via datalink during operations, eliminating the need for on-board service personnel.

Installation experience is that the system is small and weighs less than 30 kg for the complete analyzer system. It can also be easily hung on the wall near the location of the sample probe.

Another benefit confirmed by the test is that the gas analyzer system has provided continuous gas flow measurements. In this way it provides rapid data responses to operational changes in gas quality. Being a continuous measurement, the system is less sensitive to the distance between the sampling probe and the analyzer. This allows the data to be used to improve the performance of the engines.

Real-time analysis to improve the performance of liquefied natural gas vessels

Many shipowners are looking for alternative fuels to reduce their GHG (greenhouse gas) footprint. For this reason, we see a substantial increase in ships powered by liquefied natural gas. Variations in gas quality, particularly when natural and forced evaporation gas are combined, make it difficult to operate engines at optimum load. By gaining a better understanding of the quality of the gas entering the engine, it is possible to improve its efficiency.

By providing real-time data, the Tunable Gas Analyzer allows engines to be operated at a higher load when using fuel with variations in gas quality. The direct implication is that ship operators can have a higher load level on one engine before the next one is started without risk of pitting.

This translates into direct savings in fuel consumption. This is so as the motor will run with higher efficiency and it also reduces the running hours of the motors. In addition to direct fuel savings and reduced engine maintenance costs, the shipowner will benefit from a reduction in the ship’s total gas emissions.


The field test demonstrated that the Tunable gas analyzer successfully measured gas mixtures in accordance with the specifications required for LNG carriers. The benefits to shipbuilders are that they get on-site readings without delay and without calibration gas consumption.

Parsers require less support. This implies significantly lower operating and maintenance costs; compared to alternative technologies.

The trial has also shown that the technology is well suited for future exploration of multi-gas data flow analysis for dynamic engine optimization.

Tunable AS high precision gas analyzers modular optical filters

Modular Optical Filters from the Norwegian company Tunable AS are the latest addition to our catalog of products for gas analysis. These gas analyzers can measure multiple gases simultaneously. Furthermore, they are highly sensitive, small, robust and can be adapted to a wide range of applications.

The heart of your equipment is a patented Modulating Optical Filter, which combines the latest nanotechnology and microtechnology (MEMS) with the most proven IR spectroscopy. This combination enables multi-gas analysis in real time, quickly, reliably, accurately and without maintenance.

The T1000 model, your Natural Gas analyzer, allows you to measure:
From C1 to C5,
CO2, and N2,
Calorific Value, Methane Number and Wobbe Index,

Features similar to those of a chromatograph, but without the drawbacks associated with them (operating costs, response time, maintenance, no calibration bottles, etc.)

The T2500 model, its CEMS analyzer specially designed for:
the control of emissions on ships, the analysis of boiling gas (BOG),
among many others,
and allows simultaneous measurement of CO, CO2, NO. NO2, CH4 and SO2


For more information, you can contact MATELCO, SA.

Matelco and Adiquímica collaborate on an important refinery project.

A few months ago Matelco and Adiquímica collaborated on a project at a major refinery.

Adiquimica’s objective is to optimize the operation of steam boilers. With this optimization, significant amounts of water, steam and associated costs (such as gas consumption) are saved.

Matelco has had the opportunity, in this project, to put its experience in water quality analyzers of the water-steam cycle at the disposal of the project. Swan Analytical Instruments analyzers are specifically designed for this type of water.

✅ Since the implementation of this solution by Adichemical: savings in water, steam and gas have been very important.

✅ Swan Analytical water analyzers: they are working like the first day, helping to make savings possible

Success story: maintenance-free acid conductivity measurement

Continuous measurement of specific and acid conductivity is of vital importance. It ensures the quality of the steam generated, the availability of the plant and the prevention of damage during the operation of the power plants.

As we already analyzed in detail in the article “Expenditure reduction in the measurement of cationic or acidic conductivity” the tasks of replacement and regeneration of cation exchange resins have a negative impact on plant costs, on the availability of the measure, in the safety of workers and the environment.

With the aim of solving all these problems, SWAN Analytical Instruments developed the AMI CACE analyzer. The equipment has a very innovative system for self-regeneration of resin by EDI electrodeionization.


Image 1 . Location of the AMI CACE analyzer in the analyzer rack


Results with the AMI CACE parser

In its policy of continuous improvement, the Amorebieta Combined Cycle Power Plant (Bizkaia Energía) more than a year ago incorporated into its SWAS (Fig. 1) an AMI CACE analyzer for the measurement of acid and specific conductivity in Low Pressure Steam samples . The result in the words of the Plant Chemical Manager Roberto Martín:

“Given the high pH of the sample, the amount of NH4 that the resins must absorb is very high. With the new equipment, it is very appreciated not having to change them daily, especially in periods when occurs with the 2 groups at the same time. ”

“We installed the equipment in the most critical sample of the water-vapor cycle in terms of NH4 concentration. After a year in use, the equipment adequately fulfills its function”


Operation of the AMI CACE analyzer

From a technical point of view, the state of the resin, which has been automatically regenerated by the analyzer itself, and therefore without the need for human intervention, remains good more than 1 year after its commissioning (Img. 2 ).


Image 2: it can be seen that the operating time is 1 year and 19 days.


This fact is confirmed by the voltage value of the EDI module; 4079 mV, considering correct between 3000 and 8000 mV (Fig. 3).


Image 3: Current voltage 4079mV.


This resin will still be able to be self-regenerated for many more cycles without the need for any intervention by plant operators.

Given the high pH values ​​at the sampling point, the time for exhaustion of the existing resins was especially short, reaching daily resin changes.

Each resin change involved:

  1. Disassemble and accumulate spent resin from various equipment (10 liters).
  2. Regenerate it in the laboratory with acid.
  3. Rinse it properly and reassemble it on the instrument.


Advantages of AMI CACE analyzers

The installation of AMI CACE analyzers makes it possible to optimize maintenance operations in about 8 hours a week. Not so with the traditional acid conductivity. Previously these hours were dedicated to resin regeneration. Operators’ exposure to highly hazardous chemicals used during regeneration is also reduced.

In each change from exhausted resin to regenerated resin, the traditional analyzer requires an average of 1 hour for adaptation and / or rinsing of the resin, until real process measurements are achieved.

During all this time, either the plant is operated without real-time control of the acid conductivity, or the entry of steam to turbines is delayed, if the change coincides with a plant start-up.

The availability of the measure for the Ami CACE analyzer is total and immediate. So this problem disappears completely with the new scanner.


1) With traditional analyzers:

  • Frequent resin changes require significant maintenance on acid conductivity analyzers, around 100 hours per year.
  • The regeneration of resins occupies the client around 416 hours per year.
  • The regeneration of resins involves exposing the technician to dangerous substances (acid fuerte).
  • Each resin change implies a delay in the availability of reliable measurements, an average of 1 hour for each equipment.

2) OUR SOLUTION , with the AMI CACE analyzer:

  • No resin change is required, as it self-regenerates fully automatically and autonomously by the analyzer itself.
  • Laboratory and maintenance personnel have extra time, which they used to spend on maintaining the analyzer and regenerating resin.
  • Measurement availability with Ami CACE analyzers is now total and immediate, allowing to ensure optimal quality of the steam used for energy production.

For more information, contact MATELCO, SA at

Lasergas II SP Analyzer for BOF Basic Oxygen Oven

In a basic oxygen furnace, carbon-rich cast iron (pig iron) is turned into steel by blowing oxygen through a top-mounted lance at supersonic speeds into the cast iron. This reduces the carbon content of the alloy and turns it into low carbon steel.

Due to the high competitiveness of the industry, it is essential to achieve control of the process to guarantee optimal efficiency, maximizing product quality and process safety and minimizing energy consumption.


The oxidation of carbon during the oxygen conversion process is of vital importance to reduce the level of carbon and other impurities.

When oxygen is blown onto molten metal, as a result of the reaction, the temperature rises and a large amount of CO and CO2 gases are produced, causing agitation of the metal and slag.

Here the slag layer plays an important role in binding carbon and other impurities and helps to remove hydrogen, nitrogen and part of the non-metallic inclusions from the metal.

Therefore, tracking CO concentration is a key indicator to determine when the melting and decarbonization process has reached its end point.
Measuring the O2 level helps the operator control the flow of oxygen to the melt.

& nbsp;

Fig.1. Basic oxygen oven


O2 = 0 – 2%
CO = 50 – 55%
CO2 = 10 – 20%
Temperature: 60 – 90 ° C
Atmospheric pressure
Optical path length: 1 – 2.5 meters


Accurate measurements to track decarbonization process, maximize product quality, minimize energy consumption to maintain process control in oxygen feed.

• Optimize oxygen consumption
• Improved product quality
• Better process control to determine the end point of the fusion process
• Improved security
• Productivity increase


The analyzer from the Norwegian company NEO Monitors, LaserGas ™ II SP, is well proven equipment in the steel industry and is the right solution for optimized process control. State-of-the-art design and innovative functionality ensure that the instrument offers
unmatched reliability and durability in a compact solution

LaserGas ™ II SP

• Measure directly in the process (In-Situ)
• Long useful life
• No need for sampling systems
• Fast response time (typical 5s)
• Low maintenance cost
• Standard configuration O2 and CO
• ATEX / IECEx Zone 1 & 2, CSA Class 1 & 2



• High sensitivity
• Proven measurement technique
• No consumables
• Highly reliable
• Easy to install and operate


For more information, contact MATELCO, SA at

How to optimize the performance of bioreactors using mass controllers.

We are currently in a race against the clock in the development of new vaccines against infectious diseases. In the Biopharmaceutical world, the efficiency and technological productivity of bioreactors is a key point in this development.

Bioreactors create the optimal environmental conditions of temperature, nutrient concentration, pH, dissolved oxygen,… for fermentation and / or production of cell cultures. The higher the yield of the bioreactor cell culture, the greater the probability of obtaining a quality product: Vaccine, drug….

Performance of a bioreactor

There are two fundamental variables that directly influence the operation of a bioreactor, dissolved O2 and pH. Both are directly dependent on accurate and reliable gas flow control.

The amount of O2 dissolved in the medium must be reduced or increased by precise injection of O2 or N2. Given that O2 is relatively poorly soluble in water, the amount of air that allows maintaining an O2 concentration that favors the performance of the bioreactor is usually added constantly.

The pH of the medium is usually regulated by the addition of acids and / or bases. In the case of cell cultures, liquid acids could damage cells, instead acidification is usually done by adding CO2.

For CO2 flow adjustment, bioreactor manufacturers have traditionally used manual valve rotameters. These systems have obvious limitations, so the current trend is to replace them with digital mass flow controllers.

Advantages of mass controllers.

First of all, both rotameters and differential pressure controllers are volumetric systems. Therefore, small variations in Pressure (P) and Tempreature (T) translate into a significant error in the flow measurement. Mass instruments, unlike the previous ones, are totally independent of P and T, and do not require any compensation.

On the other hand, it is evident that an automatic flow control is critical for a good operation of the bioreactor. Despite the economic advantages of rotameters, they do not have any output signal that allows them to automatically handle the variations in the conditions required for optimal operation of a bioreactor.

Other important aspects are the size of the mass controller, and its versatility. For example, the ability to handle different gases (O2 and N2) with the same equipment is always an interesting feature.

Finally, in clean room environments, contamination phenomena can spoil crop batches, with the consequent loss of productivity. Using equipment that is less sensitive to contamination will reduce this risk.

We can conclude that the Smart-Trak mass flow controllers (MFC) from the American company Sierra Instruments can perfectly perform this function.


Most important characteristics of the SMART-Track:

  1. Thermal dispersion measurement technology gives a direct measurement of the mass flow, unaffected by variations in P and T
  2. Its capillary type measurement system provides great measurement linearity regardless of the gas measured. Thanks to its digital electronics, the equipment is delivered calibrated for 10 different gases
  3. “Superior” measurement features; accuracy +/- 1% full scale (for all gases), repeatability +/- 0.2% f.e., and turndown of 50: 1
  4. It incorporates a direct-acting, frictionless, automatic control valve for fast and stable gas flow adjustment between 2 and 100% of the equipment range.
  5. Compact in size, with high quality 316 stainless steel measuring body, and multiple types of process connection available


For more information, you can contact MATELCO, SA.

Combustion control and laser analyzers: non-contact measurements

In most industries, combustion processes are used as a source of heat and energy. For this purpose, boilers, heaters and furnaces, burn fuels such as natural gas, biogas or even waste. When deciding on a new system for combustion control we must take into account the following points:

  1. Investment expenditure (CAPEX)
  2. Maintenance and operation expenses (OPEX)
  3. Potential fuel savings
  4. Maximizing heater performance
  5. Minimization of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx)


Combustion efficiency

A look at the theory of combustion shows that the ideal operating point is in a slightly lean regime, that is, with an excess of air. Poor combustion ensures that the fuel burns completely in all conditions. As such, the potential for high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned fuel in the combustion gases is minimized. Otherwise, fuel will be wasted and unsafe combustion conditions could result.

Originally only oxygen (O2) was used as a control measure and the operating point was typically between 5% and 10% excess air, which meant low efficiency and high NOx generation. Currently, additional CO measurements are used to avoid fuel-rich operations, and to provide information on the O2 set point. With this additional measurement, the operating point can be reduced to a range of 3% to 6% excess air.



As an example, we choose a typical ETHYLENE CRACKER , 200 MBTU per heater per hour. By reducing the operating point from 7% excess air to 4%, at a burn rate of 85% to 100%; annual fuel savings are approximately $ 80,000 per heater (assuming $ 2.33 / MBTU). That means that for an Ethylene Cracker with six heating cells, the annual combined fuel savings is almost $ 500,000. At the same time, NOx emission would be reduced by around 33% due to less excess air (figure 1)

Figure 1: Annual fuel savings per heater in k $ (right, blue axis) and reduction in NOx emissions in% (left, yellow blocks) for various operating points relative to a 7% operating point


Combustion optimization technologies

Over time, several different technologies have been developed to optimize combustion. Most of them have been based on one-point measurement sensors (probes), which must be in physical contact with the process gas. Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) probes and electrochemical sensors are currently the most widely used. However, these sensors suffer rapid degradation due to harsh process conditions; catalyst poisoning or inhibition if exposed to reducing gases (eg sulfur). Furthermore, fuel sensors (COe) are not specific for CO, but rather measure the sum of all fuel gases, that is, they also measure hydrogen (H2) and hydrocarbons.

In contrast to these, Modulable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) performs measurement without contact with the sample, by interaction of laser light and gas molecules. Measurements can be carried out directly in-process (in situ) through the combustion chamber, thus obtaining representative results from the entire chamber, and not just from a point close to the wall.


Non-contact measurement

Furthermore, by performing non-contact measurement, the analyzers are not exposed to corrosive gases and high temperatures, and a complex sampling system with high maintenance is generally not required. Also, ZrO2 probes require monthly recalibration due to degradation, unlike TDLAS analyzers which are only validated once a year.

The TDLAS analyzer does not require a sample extraction system and maintenance is much lower, which implies a significant reduction in operating expenses (OPEX) compared to other technologies. Additionally, TDLAS analyzers are highly sensitive and selective, thus achieving very low detection limits without interference from other process gases. This means that unlike COe measurements, TDLAS analyzers measure the true value of CO, which leads to further optimization of the operating point.


Combustion analysis solutions

One of NEO Monitors’ solutions for a complete combustion analysis would be two LaserGas ™ III analyzers on site:

  1. Measurement of O2 and process temperature
  2. Measurement of CO, methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O).



Each LaserGas ™ III analyzer consists of an emitter and a receiver that are mounted on diametrically opposite sides of the combustion chamber. The installation costs of the transmitter-receiver are somewhat higher than those of the measurement sensors at one point; significantly lower maintenance costs and better combustion optimization compensate for this after a short period of operation.


Fuel economy calculations

If we look again at the fuel economy calculation from the previous example and also take into account the difference in CAPEX and OPEX between spot metering type sensors (ZrO2 and CO) and TDLAS analyzers, we get the total TDLAS benefits per heater for the first five years of operation (Figure 2)

 Figure 2: Total TDLAS benefits in k $ per heater during the first five years of operation [/ caption]


For an Ethylene Cracker with six heaters, the benefits after five years of operation are more than $ 2.7 million.

Another solution proposed by NEO Monitors that further reduces investment costs (CAPEX) is with its LaserGas ™ iQ2 analyzer.

This analyzer combines the transmitter and receiver units in a single transducer configuration. In this case, a reflector is used to send the beam back to the receiver so that the beam passes through the monitored gas sample twice. There is also a special probe type version, the LaserGas ™ iQ2 Vulcan , specially designed to replace already installed probes from other manufacturers. In this case, only a single flange is required for installation, which reduces investment costs to a minimum, while preserving the other advantages of laser analyzer measurements.



Other advantages

Other advantages of using LaserGas ™ analyzers for combustion control is that these analyzers can also measure CH4, H2O and process temperature.

  • CH4. During the start-up phase of a combustion process, information on the concentration of CH4 is essential for safety reasons, to prevent explosions.
  • H2O. H2O measurement can be used to detect tube ruptures in boilers, and / or convert wet-base to dry-base measurements, thus ensuring concordance with measurements provided by typical extractive analysis systems (on a dry basis).
  • Temperature. A TDLAS-based process temperature measurement is the best solution for proper compensation of concentration measurements.


Expenditure reduction in the measurement of cationic or acidic conductivity


The online analysis of CACE (conductivity after cation exchange or also acidic or cationic conductivity) is the most necessary parameter to monitor and control the quality of the water-steam cycle of any thermal power plant and process steam in industrial plants.

Typical points of conductivity measurement in water-steam cycles by IAPWS (International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam) include; condensate, feed water, boiler water, steam and replacement water.

The usual practice has been the use of cation exchangers based on resin for the analysis of CACE, which, however, are consumed depending on the water sample, the pH of the sample and the design of the resin column. Therefore, frequent and regular human manipulation is required. This goes against the philosophy of online analytics, which aims to operate in the most autonomous way possible.

Depending on the configuration and layout of the plant, for example in a combined cycle power plant (CTCC) with 2 blocks configured in 2-2-1 (2 gas turbines feeding 2 boilers type HRSG, which supply a turbine of common steam) about a total of 24 CACE analyzers are needed, without considering auxiliary equipment.

Theory and practice

In combined cycles, with AVT (All Volatile Treatment) treatment with a pH of about 9.7 and sample flow rate of 8 liters per hour, the typical 1 liter resin per analyzer is consumed in about 8 weeks. However, this is a theoretical value. The practice shows that for the start-up or change of load of the plants, the impurities in the cycle cause a faster resin consumption, so that 4-6 weeks seems to be a more realistic consumption rate. Nuclear power plants operating at a higher pH have a higher resin consumption and the need for replacement or regeneration is even more frequent.



In the previous example, annual savings of more than $ 37,000 were achieved. The renewal of existing analyzers by a CACE analyzer is quickly amortized.







Conductivity before and after cation exchange with an EDI module for automatic and continuous resin regeneration.
Save operating costs and measure more safely to obtain reliable data constantly.
Automatic calculation and visualization of the concentration of the alkalizing agent and the pH (VGB 450L directive).

Continuous monitoring of:

• Specific conductivity
• Acid Conductivity
• pH value or alkalizing agent

No expensive resin columns are required:
No resin exchange.
It does not need maintenance.
Without chemical products.

Use of a calorimeter to measure the calorific value in torches

In the industrial field, a good design of torches is vital to allow the maximum destruction of “residual gases”. Good design guarantees minimal harmful emissions to the atmosphere. In turn, efficient design and operation will reduce the operating costs.

Residual gases, sent to the torch for destruction, may come from different points of the process. Therefore, monitoring of its calorific power is vital. To ensure maximum efficiency in combustion. In addition it will allow to determine if this gas can be used like fuel by itself, or if it will require enrichment with an auxiliary fuel.

The micro-combustion calorimeters provide a direct measurement of the calorific Power. The sample gas, pre-mixed with a combustible gas, is burned in the equipment. This causes a variation of temperature, which is proportional to the calorific Power. In this way the analyzer provides a direct measure of the calorific Power.

Our analyzer CalorVal, of the American company Control Instruments, belongs to this category of analyzers. Robust and reliable, its design and manufacture have been tested in numerous facilities. This analyzer is capable of supporting the rigorous environmental conditions required in this type of application. It is therefore the optimum solution for the control of the calorific Power in torches.

Simple installation, quick response

The CalorVal is a lightweight and compact analyzer. Suitable for direct field mounting, next to the measuring point. It does not need mounting in a case of analyzers. So it is possible to dispense with long heated lines for sample transport, sample pumps and conditioning systems. The response time is reduced (less than 4 seconds), allowing a fast adjustment of the auxiliary fuel flow of the torch when necessary.


Minimum maintenance

Its particular design, with a camcorder and a fully heated sampling system, avoids the possible condensation of less volatile water vapor and hydrocarbons. Otherwise these could be lost, caused inaccuracies in the measure. In addition the presence of condensates could lead to maintenance problems. This feature, coupled with its simple but efficient Venturi suction sampling system, without pump or mobile parts, reduces the maintenance of the equipment to the minimum possible.

Direct measurement, with universal response

The own technology of Control Instruments applied to the CalorVal, allows to measure the calorific power of a wide variety of gases. Although the equipment has been calibrated for a particular gas, it provides an excellent cross calibration for many other gases, with minimal measurement errors when varying the composition of the sample.

The CalorVal provides a uniform response for a wide range of combustible gases and vapors. Including heavy hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, as well as many other compounds commonly present in waste gases.

If you need to resolve any questions or queries you may have about the gas analyzer, simply fill out the form on our website and one of our experts will contact you as soon as possible.

1 2 3